30 Nov 2010

Halangan

Atas perbezaan ideologi, aku terbunuh lagi.
Namun, aku tidak akan mengalah Demi Sarawak.





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The Brookes

PAPERS

Introduction

Much has been written and published about Sir James Brooke who in 1841 became the first white Rajah of Sarawak: of his nephew John Brooke

See also John R. Brooke and John Brooke, 2nd Viscount Brookeborough.


John Brooke born (1920) was a significant British historian. Earlier in his career he acted as assistant to Lewis Namier: he continued Namier's work on British politics and parliament in  Brooke, for nearly twenty years his appointed successor and heir to the Raj little has been told. Through these papers can be traced the changing relationship between the two men, and the development of events that culminated in Sir James's disinheritance disinheritance n. the act of disinheriting. (See: disinherit)


DISINHERITANCE. The act by which a person deprives his heir of an inheritance, who, without such act, would inherit.
     2.  of his nephew and the installation in his place of his brother Charles. (Both nephews, sons of Sir James's sister Emma Johnson Emma Johnson may refer to
  • Emma Johnson (clarinettist), an BBC Young Musician of the Year winning clarinet player from the United Kingdom
  • Emma Johnson (swimmer), an Australian swimmer who won a bronze medal at the 1996 Summer Olympics
, assumed the surname SURNAME. A name which is added to the christian name, and which, in modern times, have become family names.
     2. They are called surnames, because originally they were written over the name in judicial writings and contracts.  of Brooke, the elder in 1848, Charles in 1863.) The papers were assembled by Charles T.C. Grant, son of John Grant, Laird laird  
n. Scots
The owner of a landed estate.




[Scots, from Middle English lard, variant of lord, owner, master; see lord.  of Kilgraston in Perthshire. Charles Grant There are many people named Charles Grant. Some included on Wikipedia are:
  • Charles Grant (Scottish footballer), Scottish football (soccer) player
  • Charles Grant (American football), American football player
  • Charles Grant (game designer), wargaming author
 served sixteen years in Sarawak with Brooke Brooke and remained till the end of his life a devoted and loyal friend. The Collection was made, during the years following Brooke Brooke's death in 1868, with the object of vindicating his name and also for the sake of his surviving son, Hope -- to show that as rightful heir "Rightful Heir" is the 149th episode of the science fiction television series and the 22nd episode of the show's sixth season. It was first broadcast on May 17, 1993.  to the Raj "some recognition surely should be made" (Box 1/7, f. 169).

How so various a collection of letters came into Grant's hands can only be conjectured. He had been a well-loved member of the Sarawak Service and old friends continued to write to him long after his retirement in 1863; but this accounts for a small proportion only of the letters. It is possible that Sir James Brooke's literary executor, Sir Spenser St John, to whom he bequeathed papers, may have handed over to Grant some of the Rajah's correspondence after publication in 1879 of St John's Life of Sir James Brooke which Grant included, possibly because others were among the Rajah's papers that were burnt in the Chinese insurrection A rising or rebellion of citizens against their government, usually manifested by acts of violence.

Under federal law, it is a crime to incite, assist, or engage in such conduct against the United States.



INSURRECTION.  of 1857. Undoubtedly the Johnson family contributed much correspondence, to be held in trust for Hope Brooke. But it is difficult to account for the presence of letters to Charles Brooke (see Vols. 1 and 11), or for the provenance prov·e·nance  
n.
1. Place of origin; derivation.

2. Proof of authenticity or of past ownership. Used of art works and antiques.  of much of the correspondence in Vols. 13-16.

The whole Collection was given by Charles Grant's son, Colonel Patrick Grant Sir Patrick Grant GCMG GCB (1804 – 11 September, 1895) was a British field marshal.

He was the second son of Major John Grant,of the 97th Regiment of Foot, of Auchterblair, Invernessshire, where he was born. , to his cousin Hope Brooke, and in 1975 was most generously presented by Hope Brooke's eldest ELDEST. He or she who has the greatest age.
     2. The laws of primogeniture are not in force in the United States; the eldest child of a family cannot, therefore, claim any right in consequence of being the eldest.  son, Vice Admiral ADMIRAL, officer. In some countries is the commander in chief of the naval forces. This office does not exist in the United States.  Basil C.B. Brooke, CB, CBE CBE Commander of the Order of the British Empire (a Brit. title)

CBE n abbr (= Companion of (the Order of) the British Empire) → título de nobleza

CBE n abbr (= , to Rhodes House Library, Oxford. It consists mainly of letters written between the years 1833 and 1875, with a few of later dates; these have been bound in sixteen volumes. Related papers, 1830-1977, are filed in boxes numbered 1-5. Some additional letters, 1856-1974, were deposited after the binding of the correspondence had been completed, and these have been filed in Box 3/12. The list of contents that follows this introductory note shows in some detail the scope and arrangement of the papers.

James Brooke was born near Benares, in 1803; his father, Thomas Brooke, was a Judge in the Honorable East India Company's Civil Service. James was one of six children. His sister Emma, a year older than himself, was particularly close in his affections, and her childrens' lives became woven into the pattern of his own. He never married.

He entered the Company's army in 1819 and was severely wounded during the first Burmese war The First Anglo-Burmese War lasted from 1823 to 1826. In the United Kingdom it is called the First Burmese War whereas Burmese custom names both belligerents. It was the first of the three wars fought between Burma and the British Empire during the 19th ; he was invalided home in 1825. It was on his return to Bengal in 1830 in the East Indiaman An East Indiaman was a ship operating under charter or license to the Honourable East India Company. The company itself did not generally own merchant ships, but held a monopoly granted to it by Queen Elizabeth I of England for all English trade between the Cape of Good Hope and  Castle Huntley that he first met John Keith Jolly, one of the ship's officers. Jolly later became Captain of the vessel, and the two men maintained their friendship by correspondence for over twenty years (see Vol. 1). Having resigned his commission, Brooke sailed on in the Castle Huntley, visiting China, Penang, Malacca and Singapore before returning to England. These travels fired his imagination and his ambition. He made a second voyage VOYAGE, marine law. The passage of a ship upon the seas, from one port to another, or to several ports.
     2. Every voyage must have a terminus a quo and a terminus ad quem.  to the East in 1834 in a brig, the Findlay, which in partnership with another he had purchased and freighted for China; but this venture proved a failure, and brig and cargo were sold in China at a loss. Brooke's early letters to Jolly describe his activities between 1833 and 1838.

In 1835 his father died, leaving him a legacy of 30,000 pounds. This brought within reach the realization of his dream to explore the islands of the Eastern Archipelago Archipelago (ärkĭpĕl`əgō) [Ital., from Gr.=chief sea], ancient name of the Aegean Sea, later applied to the numerous islands it contains. The word now designates any cluster of islands. . He purchased the schooner schooner (sk`nər), sailing vessel, rigged fore-and-aft, with from two to seven masts.  Royalist roy·al·ist  
n.
1. A supporter of government by a monarch.

2. Royalist
a. See cavalier.

b. An American loyal to British rule during the American Revolution; a Tory. , and after a preliminary cruise in the Mediterranean (his eldest nephew was one of the party) sailed in December 1838 for Borneo, with plans for the promotion of trade as well as British ascendancy as·cen·dan·cy also as·cen·den·cy  
n.
Superiority or decisive advantage; domination: "Germany only awaits trade revival to gain an immense mercantile ascendancy" Winston S. Churchill. . Singapore was reached the following May, and there Brooke was asked by the Governor to convey thanks and gifts to Rajah Muda Hassim, governor of Sarawak (then a province under the rule of the Sultan SULTAN. The title of the Turkish sovereign and other Mahometan princes.  of Brunei), who had shown kindness to shipwrecked British seamen. This service was accomplished and a friendly relationship established. After a year spent in exploring the Archipelago, he paid a second visit to Sarawak, where he gave valuable advice and active assistance in subduing insurrection. Hassim begged him to stay, offering him the government and trade of Sarawak, to beheld be·held  
v.
Past tense and past participle of behold.



beheld
Verb

the past of behold

beheld behold  under the sovereignty of Brunei in return for a small annual payment to the Sultan. On 24 September 1841 James Brooke was proclaimed pro·claim  
tr.v. pro·claimed, pro·claim·ing, pro·claims
1. To announce officially and publicly; declare. See Synonyms at announce.

2.  Rajah.

For the first years of Brooke rule the Collection contains no documentation. Two letters from the Rajah to Brooke Brooke are dated 1845; in October 1846 his correspondence with Charles Grant began (Vol. 4). Grant was then a midshipman midshipman: see toadfish.  in HMS Agincourt Five ships of the Royal Navy have been called HMS Agincourt, named after the Battle of Agincourt of 1415, and construction of another was started but not completed. , the flagship in which the Rajah accompanied Admiral Sir Thomas Cochrane from Sarawak to Brunei. Verses by the Rajah addressed to "My midshipmen friends in HMS Agincourt" are filed in Box 1/1. Grant became a favorite of the Rajah who took an interest in his career; they met again in England during 1847. Grant was appointed to HMS HMS
abbr.
Her (or His) Majesty's Ship

HMS (Brit) abbr (= His (or Her) Majesty's Ship) → Namensteil von Schiffen der Kriegsmarine  Meander meander

Extreme U-bend in a stream, usually occurring in a series, that is caused by flow characteristics of the water. Meanders form in stream-deposited sediments and may stack up upstream of an obstruction, resulting in a gooseneck or extremely bowed meander. , the ship that carried the Rajah back to Sarawak in 1848 after his triumphs in England where he had been acclaimed ac·claim  
v. ac·claimed, ac·claim·ing, ac·claims

v.tr.
1. To praise enthusiastically and often publicly; applaud. See Synonyms at praise.

2.  by the nation and knighted by the Queen. He appointed Grant his aide-de-camp, and wrote to the boy's father in Scotland proposing that he should leave the Navy and make his career in Sarawak (Vol. 4, ff. 306-19). He became the Rajah's private secretary, and a valued member of the Government Service.

It was a remarkable group of young men whom Sir James gathered round him at that time -- men who embraced a life of considerable hardship, loneliness and danger, and gave devoted service to the Rajah and his adopted country. In addition to a common allegiance and mutual dependence in an alien land, they shared the bond of similar background and upbringing up·bring·ing  
n.
The rearing and training received during childhood.



upbringing
Noun

the education of a person during his or her formative years

Noun 1. . It was chiefly from the families of Brooke, Johnson and Grant that these men were drawn: brothers, sons and cousins were introduced into the Rajah's service and came under the influence of his strong personality. Inter-marriage strengthened ties of family and friendship. Brooke Brooke married Charles Grant's sister; Grant's wife brought her brother Robert Brother Robert was a cleric working in Norway who adapted several French literary works into Old Norse during the reign of Norwegian king Haakon IV of Norway (1217 – 1263).  Hay, who became Brooke's good friend and supporter; not only Brooke's brother Charles joined him in the Service but later his younger brother Stuart, and his sister Mary's brother-in-law Harry Nicholetts. The Pedigree pedigree

Record of ancestry or purity of breed. Pedigrees of domesticated animals are maintained by governmental or private record associations or breed organizations in many countries.  of these families made by Mrs. Margaret Noble for the Society of Genealogists The Society of Genealogists (SoG) is a UK-based educational charity, founded in 1911 to "promote, encourage and foster the study, science and knowledge of genealogy". Membership is open to any adult who agrees to abide by the Society's rules and who pays the annual subscription.  (Box 3/11) is an invaluable guide through the complexity of names and relationships.

Letters from the wives (Annie Brooke, Matilda Grant and Harriette McDougall, wife of the Bishop of Labuan and Sarawak) give spirited, factual and sometimes painfully moving accounts of their lives and the homes they created with resourcefulness Resourcefulness
Buck

clever and temerarious dog perseveres in the Klondike. [Am. Lit.: Call of the Wild]

Crichton, Admirable

butler proves to be infinite resource for castaway family on island. [Br. Lit.  and courage. They were supported by the strong Christian faith in which they had grown up. England was three month's voyage away, travel was costly, mails unreliable. They were dependent entirely upon each other for company, comfort, and help. Medical aid was supplied by Bishop McDougall, a qualified doctor; but unfamiliar tropical diseases Tropical diseases are infectious diseases that either occur uniquely in tropical and subtropical regions (which is rare) or, more commonly, are either more widespread in the tropics or more difficult to prevent or control.  and the deaths of children and of mothers in childbirth childbirth: see birth.

Childbirth
Childlessness (See BARRENNESS.)

Artemis

(Rom. Diana) goddess of childbirth. [Gk. Myth.  are tragically recurrent themes in letters and journals. An interesting account of the Rajah's "family circle" and their way of life is given by Captain Cresswell (who had served with Charles Grant in the Agincourt) in a letter to his mother following a visit to Sarawak in 1858 (Vol. 13, f 128).

The correspondence presents a comprehensive picture of the writers' lives and preoccupations. As well as the constant concern with personal and family matters, every aspect of Sarawak affairs is discussed, often from divergent di·ver·gent  
adj.
1. Drawing apart from a common point; diverging.

2. Departing from convention.

3. Differing from another: a divergent opinion.

4.  viewpoints, and there are first-hand accounts of many historic events such as the insurrection of the Chinese gold-workers in 1857 when the Rajah narrowly escaped with his life. Problems of administration and local politics recur, the exploration and development of the country, particularly its mineral resources Noun 1. mineral resources - natural resources in the form of minerals
natural resource, natural resources - resources (actual and potential) supplied by nature , and relations with the Borneo Company; the suppression of piracy piracy, robbery committed or attempted on the high seas. It is distinguished from privateering in that the pirate holds no commission from and receives the protection of no nation but usually attacks vessels of all nations. , and the Commission of Enquiry appointed by the British Government to examine the accusations brought against the Rajah by Joseph Hume Joseph Hume FRS (January 22, 1777 – February 20, 1855) was a Scottish doctor and politician, born in Montrose, Angus. Medical career
He studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh and moved to India in 1797. , MP; the Testimonial raised on behalf of the Rajah; the "Muka incident" in 1860; the conduct of the Borneo Mission; and the prolonged pro·long  
tr.v. pro·longed, pro·long·ing, pro·longs
1. To lengthen in duration; protract.

2. To lengthen in extent.  negotiations to obtain recognition and protection for Sarawak. John Grant's letters to his son Charles (Vol. 12) help to place these matters in the perspective of world events, and perhaps give point to the apparent indifference shown by the British Government to the Rajah's approaches.

All through the Collection passages marked principally by Charles Grant (initialled CTCG CTCG Collectible Trading Card Game ), sometimes by Hope Brooke or Admiral Brooke, draw attention to the Rajah's reiteration reiteration

in eukaryotes, multiple copies of certain relatively short nucleotide sequences that are repeated from a few times to millions of times; three classes are defined, single copy, moderately reiterated and highly reiterated; some occur as inverted repeats.  of his promise that his nephew Brooke should succeed him as ruler of Sarawak. As early as 1845 he wrote proposing that Brooke should join him as aide-decamp, saying that it was his wish "to transmit this as an inheritance to you and to your heirs" (Vol. 2, ff. 1-6). Brooke left the Army and joined the Sarawak Service in 1848, assuming his uncle's name. Throughout the sixteen years he served in Sarawak there was never any doubt that he was heir presumptive HEIR PRESUMPTIVE. A presumptive heir is one who, in the present circumstances, would be entitled to the inheritance, but whose rights may be defeated by the contingency of some nearer heir being born. 2 B1 Com. 208.  and would one day take over the reins reins
pl.n.
The kidneys, loins, or lower back.  of government and become the second Rajah.

It was during the course of Sir James's long-drawn-out negotiations with the British Government, and later with Holland, France, and Belgium, that there appeared signs of discord Discord
See also Confusion.

Andras

demon of discord. [Occultism: Jobes, 93]

discord, apple of

caused conflict among goddesses; Trojan War ultimate result. [Gk. Myth.  between the two men. Brooke disagreed with his uncle's opinion that Sarawak could not maintain her independence unsupported, and disliked the idea of protection by a Foreign Power. In October 1858 the Rajah suffered a stroke while in England; he made a good recovery, but heavy responsibilities devolved on Brooke. Personal tragedies befell him: in December 1858 the death of his beloved wife Annie, following the birth of their second son, Hope, and two years later the death of their elder boy. In 1862 his second wife also died in childbirth. The Rajah's constant letters of instructions and criticism, sometimes several in one day, must have added to the tension at a time when Brooke was exhausted by emotional strain and anxiety. He came increasingly to feel that the proposal to "hand over" Sarawak, in return for payment of a sum that wo uld recompense RECOMPENSE. A reward for services; remuneration for goods or other property.
     2. In maritime law there is a distinction between recompense and restitution. (q.v.  the Rajah for the amount he had expended ex·pend  
tr.v. ex·pend·ed, ex·pend·ing, ex·pends
1. To lay out; spend: expending tax revenues on government operations. See Synonyms at spend.

2.  from his "private fortune", was a violation of his own rights as heir. His resentment was exacerbated by a report on Sarawak written by St John for the British Government and shown to him by Colonel Cavenagh, Governor of the Straits Settlements Straits Settlements, collective name for certain former British colonies in Southeast Asia. The three British East India Company territories of Pinang, Singapore, and Malacca (see Melaka) were given a unified administration in 1826 and called the Straits Settlements. , during his visit in 1862. In this memorandum Brooke felt his claims were "utterly suppressed". He wrote to his uncle in England a



 threatening letter of reproach re·proach  
tr.v. re·proached, re·proach·ing, re·proach·es
1. To express disapproval of, criticism of, or disappointment in (someone). See Synonyms at admonish.

2. To bring shame upon; disgrace.

n.  and defiance Defiance, city (1990 pop. 16,768), seat of Defiance co., NW Ohio, at the confluence of the Auglaize and Maumee rivers, in a farm area; settled 1790, inc. 1836. Its manufactures include machinery and food, fabricated-metal, and glass products. Gen.  (Vol. 5, ff 488-9), and to Lord Russell Lord Russell may refer to:
  • John Russell, 1st Earl Russell (1792 – 1878), British Prime Minister
  • Lord Arthur John Edward Russell (1825-1892), British Member of Parliament
  • Lord George Russell (1790-1846), English soldier, politician and diplomat 
    • a protest against a transfer of the country without his consent and that of the Council.

The Rajah sailed at once for Singapore. On 24 February 1863 the two men met: Brooke submitted to his uncle's authority and departed for England "on leave of absence"; the Rajah proceeded to Sarawak to resume government, accompanied by his nephew Charles.

Had Brooke kept silence on reaching England, the situation might yet have been retrieved. Instead he attempted to demonstrate that wrong that had been done to himself and to his son, and to prove that his uncle had abdicated in his favor in 1861, a fact that Charles Grant was ready to confirm (Vol. 11, ff. 123-4). The publication of his pamphlet pamphlet, short unbound or paper-bound book of from 64 to 96 pages. The pamphlet gained popularity as an instrument of religious or political controversy, giving the author and reader full benefit of freedom of the press.  "A Statement Regarding Sarawak" (Box 3/6) brought final disaster. A letter from the Rajah ended their relationship: "I disinherit To cut off from an inheritance. To deprive someone, who would otherwise be an heir to property or another right, of his or her right to inherit.

A parent who wishes to disinherit a child may specifically state so in a will.



disinherit v.  you for crimes you have committed against the State and against myself" (Vol. 3, f 399). His brother Charles was installed in his place and in 1868, on the death of Sir James, became second Rajah. Brooke survived his uncle by only a few months.

From these papers Brooke Brooke emerges as a man of courage, integrity and resource who, in the words of his grandson Admiral Brooke, "carried almost all the weight and difficulties when the country was being rescued from the pirates This is a list of known pirates, buccaneers, corsairs, privateers, and others involved in piracy. This list includes both captains and prominent crew members.

See also: pirates, wokou, buccaneers, corsairs, and privateers Ancient World and the jungle" (Box 3/10, f 3). Quiet and reserved in manner, he possessed "a noble nature and sweet temper" (Vol. 4, f 420). He had great affection and admiration for his brilliant uncle, whose elegance of style in prose and diplomacy diplomacy

Art of conducting relationships for gain without conflict. It is the chief instrument of foreign policy. Its methods include secret negotiation by accredited envoys (though political leaders also negotiate) and international agreements and laws.  he could not hope to emulate em·u·late  
tr.v. em·u·lat·ed, em·u·lat·ing, em·u·lates
1. To strive to equal or excel, especially through imitation: an older pupil whose accomplishments and style I emulated.

2.  but whose advice and judgement he accepted loyally until they ran contrary to what he felt to be right. Perhaps out of temperamental tem·per·a·men·tal  
adj.
1. Relating to or caused by temperament: our temperamental differences.

2. Excessively sensitive or irritable; moody.

3.  differences grew the misunderstandings that ended in tragedy for Brooke. But though never officially Rajah, he gave devoted service to Sarawak and played a fundamental part in the development of the country. He is buried in the family vault in the churchyard at White Lackington, near Ilminster, where his father was vicar for 49 years. A memorial tablet in the chancel chancel, primarily that part of the church close to the altar and used by the officiating clergy. In the early churches it was separated from the nave by a low parapet or open railing (cancellus), its name being thus derived.  (one of many commemor ating members of the Johnson family) names him as "Rajah Muda of Sarawak".

We gratefully acknowledge our indebtedness to Mrs. Margaret Noble who initiated the deposit of these papers, and warmly record her most generous response to all our calls upon her specialized spe·cial·ize  
v. spe·cial·ized, spe·cial·iz·ing, spe·cial·iz·es

v.intr.
1. To pursue a special activity, occupation, or field of study.

2.  knowledge of the Brooke family and their history, both in connection with these papers and with a second large collection deposited in Rhodes House Library (MSS Pac. S 83); this is concerned mainly with the later period of Brooke rule and the cession of Sarawak to the British Crown in 1946, but it contains also earlier papers including correspondence with the first and second Rajahs.

Other relevant papers in Rhodes House Library are an unsigned unsigned
Adjective

(of a letter etc.) anonymous

Adj. 1. unsigned - lacking a signature; "the message was typewritten and unsigned"
signed - having a handwritten signature; "a signed letter"  "Statement of the proceedings of Governor Edwards upon the Coast of Borneo" [1860] (MSS Pac. S 1); extracts from letters, 1841-48, from Sir James Brooke to Henry Wise, printed for Members of the House of Commons House of Commons: see Parliament. , copies of letters from Wise to the Foreign Office, 1845-48, and from Sir James to James To Kun Sun (Traditional Chinese: 涂謹申, born 11 March, 1963) is member of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong since 1991 except between 1997 and 1998. To is also a member of the Yau Tsim Mong District Council.  Captain Bethune, 1845 (MSS Pac. S 66). 

Mengenangmu: Rosli Dhoby

Rosli Dhoby merupakan salah seorang pejuang kemerdekaan Sarawak walaupun tidak sepopular para pejuang Sarawak yang lain seperti Rentap dan Sharif Masahor. Usianya ketika itu baru mencapai 17 tahun dan beliau seorang guru. Namun semangat juang bagi menentang British yang ingin kembali menguasai Sarawak selepas Perang Dunia Kedua cukup mengagumkan.

SILA BACA MULA DARI LAMAN TOK:
Sinopsis - Pahlawan Yang tidak didendangkan : http://galeripejuangsarawak.blogspot.com/2009/12/perihal-rosli-dhoby-1.html
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